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Flora And Fauna Of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has been blessed with varied flora and fauna even when majority of its area is desert. The forest cover is also quite limited, despite these adversities, some unique flora and fauna can be witnessed. Northern Desert Thorn Forest type natural vegetation is found in this state. This vegetation is found in form of small clumps which are scattered in the state in open forms. As rainfall increases when we move from west to east, the size and density of these patches increases.

Desert ecosystem is prominently seen in Rajasthan and one of the best examples to witness the same is the Desert National Park located in Jaisalmer. This park is sprawled in an area of 3162 square km. One can see diverse fauna in this ecosystem. The desert’s geological history can be traced back to its origin through the massive tree trunks and sea shells that have been fossilized here. Many resident as well as migratory birds have made this region their home. Kestrel, falcons, eagles, vultures, harriers and buzzards can be commonly seen. Tawny Eagles (Scientific Name- Aquila rapax), Short toed Eagles (Scientific Names- Circaetus gallicus), Laggar Falcons (Scientific Name- Falco jugger), Spotted Eagles (Scientific Name-Aquila clanga) and kestrels are some of the most commonly seen birds in this region.

Another worth visiting place is the Ranthambore National Park. It is located in Sawai Madhopur and is considered to be a prominent Tiger Reserves in India. In 1973, this National Park became an integral part of Project Tiger.

Rare and unique herbs are found grown in Dhosi Hill area. It is situated in Jhunjhunu region. This place is also famous as Chyawan Rishi’s Ashram” and this is where Chayawanprash was first formulated. This formulation is considered to be good for health. In Alwar district, another popular reserve is located, namely Sariska Tiger Reserve. About 107 km from Jaipur and 200 km away from Delhi, this reserve is famous among wild life lovers. This reserve is sprawled in about 800 square km area. In 1979, Tiger Reserve was declared as a National Park.

Located in Churu district, in Sujangarh another sanctuary is located. It is famous as Tal Chhapar Sanctuary. Nestled amidst Shekhawati region, this sanctuary houses a large populace of desert foxes and blackbuck. A popular predator, caracal, also referred to as the desert lynx can also be seen here. Prominent birds found in this region are sand grouse and partridge. Locally known as Godavan, the Great Indian Bustard is the state bird of Rajasthan. Since 2011, it has been declared as an endangered species.


On the eastern side of Aravali range, a sparse forest cover can be seen. It is just nine percent of the total state area. Thus, limited vegetation can be witnessed in the desert area. Here, trees with stunted growth, some grasses and thorny shrubs can be seen. Besides Northern Desert Thorn Forest type natural vegetation, another vegetation type seen here is ephemeral. It is seen only during monsoon season.

The most prolific vegetation seen in this state is Kejri or prosopis cineraria. This is found majorly in arid zone. Its shape is bean like and is known as sangria. It is not only used as fodder but also consumed as vegetable. It is considered as a delicacy in Rajasthan. Another popular desert vegetable is ker. Variety of shrubs and akaro (scientific name- calotropis precera) are also found in abundance. Since this is desert vegetation, the shrubs have a lot of thorns. Other plants growing here are thor (Scientific name- euphorbia caduca), babul (Scientific name- acacia nilotica), bordi (Scientific name-sizypus nummularia) and anwal (Scientific name- cassia aureculata). Some perennial grass species seen here is dhaman (Scientific name- cenhrus  cikaris), sewan (Scientific name- lasiurus sindicus), bharut (Scientific name- cenchrus catharficus) and boor (Scientific name- cenchrus jwarancusa). These species not only help in binding the soil together but are also good fodder for cattle.

Creeper, shrubs, herbs and bushes dot the shallow wetland landscape in Eastern Rajasthan. Khejri (Scientific name- prosopis cineria) and babul (Scientific name- acacia nilotica) are seen in Keoladeo National Park. More than seventy species of trees can be seen in the Ranthambore National Park. Some prominent species are peepal (Scientific Name- ficus religlora), Dhak (Scientific Name- butea monosperma), ber (Scientific Name- zizyphus mauritiana), banyan (Scientific Name- ficus bengha lensis) and khajur (Scientific Name- phoenix sylvestris). 13 shrub varieties, 30 grass species and more than 100 medicinal species can be seen here. In Mount Abu which is a hill area, species like bamboo (Scientific name- dendor calamus strictus), salar (Scientific name- bowellia seriata), dhav (Scientific name- anogeisrus pendula) and jamun (Scientific name- syzygium cumini) are found. Rare species of wild roses, ferns and orchids can also be seen here.

In neighboring areas of Jaipur, dhav can be found in abundance. Other plant species see here are thor, solar, guggal, godal, shatawari, brahmi and adusa.


A vivid spectrum of faunal wealth can be witnessed in Rajasthan. Here, one can see variety of reptiles, mammals and bird life. In various areas of this state, gazellas and antelopes are found. Jodhpur region is widely inhabited by Black Bucks (Scientific name- Kala hiran) and in sandy deserts, one can find Indian Gazelle (Scientific name- chinkara). In open plains, one can easily spot blue bull or nilgai. They can also be seen close to Aravalli range.In hilly regions, four-horned antelope (Scientific name- chau singha) can be spotted. Forests where open meadows in patches can be seen, spotted deer and sambar can be seen roaming around. In monkey family, langur and rhesus macaque (Common name- Bandar) can be seen close to Aravalli Range. Indian Tiger is the best representative of cat family in this state. Tigers that are now declared endangered species can be witnessed in National Parks of Sariska and Ranthambhore. Panther or leopard is another species that is threatened. They are found close to Aravallis rocky outcrops and open countryside located in Jodhpur region. Caracal and Jungle Cat can also be seen. In dog family, wolf, jackal and desert fox can be seen.

In erstwhile times, Maharajas used to hunt wild boar as this was one of their leisure activities. Wild boar can be seen close to Mount Abu. In Ranthambhore’s deciduous forests, Sloth bear can also be spotted. Small sized mongoose and common mongoose can also be seen in arid regions. These creatures live on birds, rodents and snakes. In reptile family, Indian chameleon, Indian python and garden lizard can be seen.

Ghariyal and crocodile can be seen in abundance in the lakes and rivers of this state. Many migratory birds also visit Rajasthan. The prominent among these is Siberian Crane that travels more than 6000 km to reach Bharatpur. In Keoladeo National Park, more than 375 bird species can be spotted. The black-necked stork which is tallest bird in the world can also be seen here. Black in colour, it is about 1.8 metres tall. At Sambar and Khichan, demoiselle cranes can also be seen. Grey patridge and Indian Bustard are rare species that can be seen in forests of Rajasthan,

Wildlife Attraction

A wide array of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks also dot state landscape. The main wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Rajasthan are Sariska Tiger Reserve located in Alwar, Keoladeo National Park located in Bharatpur, Desert National Park situated in Jaisalmer and Ranthambore National Park located in Sawai Madhopur. For tiger population, Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary and Ranhambhore National Park are famous all over the world. Avid photographers and wildlife enthusiasts love to visit these reserved areas to spot this huge beast in its true splendor. Major wildlife sanctuaries in Rajasthan are Darrah Sanctuary, Mount Abu Sanctuary, Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhensrod Garh Sanctuary, Jaisamand Sanctuary, Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary and Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary.

Aerial Population

In Rajasthan, more than 450 bird species have been identified. These species include birds that found their habitat in wetlands, forests, desert and grasslands. Hornbills, orioles, swallows, kingfishers, parakeets, mynas, warblers, robins, doves, flycatchers, barbets, quails, peacocks, drongos and woodpeckers are housed in Aravalli range. One of the most significant bird sanctuaries in India is Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary. Wetlands are also found in Eastern Rajasthan. The prominent migratory birds seen in this state are herons, spoonbills, open bills, storks, egrets and ibis. They visit this stay during winters. Common marbled, pintail, Baikal teal, gadwell, coot, shoveler, bar-headed geese, wigeon and graylag geese are included in waterfowl’s category. The guests coming in winters are Siberian cranes while saras lives permanently in this park. Besides saras, egrets, moorhens, cormorants and storks can be spotted.

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